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Typically, each body segment has one ganglion on each side, though some ganglia are fused to form the brain and other large ganglia.The head segment contains the brain, also known as the supraesophageal ganglion.
Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves."It is difficult to believe that until approximately year 1900 it was not known that neurons are the basic units of the brain (Santiago Ram? Equally surprising is the fact that the concept of chemical transmission in the brain was not known until around 1930 (Henry Hallett Dale) and (Otto Loewi).We began to understand the basic electrical phenomenon that neurons use in order to communicate among themselves, the action potential, in the decade of 1950 (Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley and John Eccles).It controls the mouthparts, the salivary glands and certain muscles.Many arthropods have well-developed sensory organs, including compound eyes for vision and antennae for olfaction and pheromone sensation.